Ultra-Realistic Imaging

Ultra-Realistic Imaging: Advanced Techniques in Analogue and Digital Colour Holography

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ISBN 9781439827994
Cat# K11379
ISBN 9781439828007
Cat# KE11262


  • Provides comprehensive coverage of dynamic holography
  • Includes colour images throughout the text
  • Discusses data acquisition techniques, hologram materials, and applications


Ultra-high resolution holograms are now finding commercial and industrial applications in such areas as holographic maps, 3D medical imaging, and consumer devices. Ultra-Realistic Imaging: Advanced Techniques in Analogue and Digital Colour Holography brings together a comprehensive discussion of key methods that enable holography to be used as a technique of ultra-realistic imaging.

After a historical review of progress in holography, the book:

  • Discusses CW recording lasers, pulsed holography lasers, and reviews optical designs for many of the principal laser types with emphasis on attaining the parameters necessary for digital and analogue holography
  • Gives a full review of current photosensitive materials for colour holography
  • Covers modern methods of analogue holography and digital holographic printing
  • Introduces mathematical and geometrical notation for horizontal parallax-only holograms and practical computational algorithms for the full-parallax case
  • Reviews systems and the image processing algorithms required to convert the raw image data to the format required by digital printers
  • Develops the physical theory of the holographic grating and the hologram
  • Provides an up-to-date review of illumination sources, including LED and laser diode sources

Written by leaders in dynamic holography, this handbook provides complete coverage of real-time colour holographic processes, including applications. The book covers not only the optics and theory behind such holographic systems, but also laser technologies, recording devices, data acquisition and processing techniques, materials for reproduction, and current and developing applications.

Table of Contents

Ultra-Realistic Imaging and Its Historical Origin in Display Holography
Ultra-Realistic Imaging and Interferential Techniques
Before Holography
Early Holography
Display Holography Milestones
Digital and Analogue Full-Colour Holography

Lippmann Photography
Brief History of Interferential Colour Recordings
Examples of Interferential Structures in Nature
Lippmann Photography
Theory of the Lippmann Process
Early Lippmann Emulsions
Recording of Early Lippmann Photographs
Modern Lippmann Photography
Concluding Remarks

Continuous Wave Lasers for Colour Holography
Gas Lasers
Dye Lasers
Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers
Semiconductor Diode Lasers
Fibre Lasers
CW Laser Sources for Colour Holography Today

Recording Materials for Colour Holography
Holographic Recording
Holographic Emulsions
Problems Due to Short or Long Exposure
Increasing Sensitivity by Hypersensitisation and Latensification
Substrates for Holographic Emulsions
Commercial Recording Materials for Colour Holography
SilverCross Emulsion Research Project
Additional Silver Halide Materials for Holography
DCG Materials
Photopolymer Materials

Analogue Colour Holography
Origins in Monochromatic Holography
History of True Full-Colour Holography
Colour Recording in Holography
Setup for Recording Colour Holograms
Full-Colour Pulsed Portraiture

Pulsed Lasers for Holography
Ruby Laser
Flashlamp-Pumped Lasers Based on Crystals Doped with Neodymium at 1 μm
High-Energy Two-Colour Emission: Stimulated Raman Amplification
Pulsed RGB Lasers—Neodymium Lasers at μm
Pulsed Holography Lasers Based on Titanium Sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) and Cr:LiSAF
Chromium Forsterite
Pulsed Diode-Pumped Lasers for Holography and the Future

Digital Colour Holography
Holographic Stereograms
One-Step Digital Holograms
A Simple DWDH Printer
Modern DWDH Printers
MWDH Printers
Copying Full-Colour DWDH Holograms

Digital Holographic Printing: Data Preparation, Theory and Algorithms
Basic Considerations
Coordinate Systems
Coordinate Meshes
Independent Primary Colours
Viewing Plane
Simple Cases
Image-Planed DWDH HPO Holograms
Rainbow and Achromatic Transmission Holograms
Correcting for Inherent Distortion in Printer Optical Objective

Digital Holographic Printing: Computational Methods for Full-Parallax Holograms
Practical Strategies for Changing the Image Plane
Resolution Requirements of DWDH Reflection Holograms
DWDH Transmission Holograms
MWDH Reflections Holograms
Full-Parallax and HPO DWDH

Image Data Creation and Acquisition for Digital Display Holograms
Image Acquisition from a Physical Scene: HPO Holograms
Image Acquisition from a Physical Scene: Full-Parallax Digital Holograms
Images Derived from a Virtual Computer Model: HPO Holograms
Images Derived from a Virtual Computer Model: Full-Parallax Holograms

Theoretical Basis for High-Fidelity Display Holograms
Three-Dimensional Paraxial Theory of a Thin Transmission Hologram
Laser Transmission Holograms and the Problem of Speckle
Three-Dimensional Theory of the Thick Transmission Hologram
Reflection Holograms
Simple Model of Thick Hologram: PSMs
Holograms of Finite Thickness
Emulsion Swelling and Change in Refractive Index on Processing
Nonparaxial Behaviour and Digital Image Predistortion
Solving Helmholtz Equation in Volume Grating: Coupled Wave Theory
Blurring Revisited
Computational Methods of Calculating Diffractive Efficiency of Planar Gratings

Diffraction Efficiency: An Alternative Approach Using the PSM Model
Formulation of Simplest Model—Normal-Incidence Reflection Grating
Comparison with Numerical Solution of Helmholtz Equation
Multiple-Colour Gratings
Unslanted Reflection Grating at Finite Angle
Slanted Reflection Grating
Slanted Reflection Grating in Three Dimensions
Transmission Gratings with Slanted Fringes
Comparison of PSM Theory with Kogelnik’s Theory for Slanted Grating
Polychromatic Slanted Reflection Gratings
Extending PSM to Describe Spatially Multiplexed Monochromatic Gratings
Lippmann Photography

Illumination of Colour Holograms
Illumination of Holograms by Laser Sources
Nonlaser Light Sources Used for Hologram Illumination
Exhibition Facilities and Galleries Suitable for Displaying Holograms
Edge-Lit Holograms
Illumination of Large Displays

Applications of Ultra-Realistic Holographic Imaging
Some Scientific Applications of Holographic Imaging
Visual Applications of Full-Colour Holographic Imaging
Future Applications


Appendix 1: Historical Origins of Display Holography: Spreading Awareness
Hologram Exhibitions
Commercial and Educational Entities Involved in Holography

Appendix 2: History of the Geola Organisation
The Beginning
First Meeting in Vilnius
Incorporation of Geola UAB
First Romanian Exhibition of Large-Format Holography
Start of XYZ
Panchromatic Film and Sfera-S
Vilnius Digital Printer
Sale of XYZ

Appendix 3: Active Cavity Length Stabilisation in Pulsed Neodymium Lasers
Example of Cavity Stabilisation System Using Heated Rear Mirror Holder
Active Cavity Length Stabilisation by Piezo Element
Extension to Other Lasers

Appendix 4: Aberration Correction by Image Predistortion in Digital Hologram
Mathematical Model
Calculation of Optimal Reference Replay Angle
Compensation for Geometrical Distortion
Compensation for Chromatic Aberration
Other Corrections

Appendix 5: MAXScript Holocam Program

Appendix 6: Design Study of Compact RGB LED Hologram Illumination Source
Monochromatic Light Source
Polychromatic Light Source
Design of Main Lens Surface
Selected Cases: Computational Results
Additional Considerations
Commercial Design of Nine-Diode Framing Light Source

Appendix 7: Bilinear and Bicubic Interpolation
Bilinear Interpolation
Bicubic Interpolation

Appendix 8: Rigorous Coupled Wave Theory of Simple and Multiplexed Gratings

Derivation of RCW Equations
Simplification in the Case of Simple Non-Multiplexed Grating
Derivation of Boundary Conditions
Numerical Solution of RCW Equations

Recent Developments

New Equipment, Materials, Techniques, and Applications
Progress at Zebra Imaging
The Queen Elizabeth II Portrait and the Jersey Postage Stamp
Lasers for Colour Holography
Progress in Recording Materials and Recording Techniques
Printers to Record Digital Colour Holograms
3D Display Systems
New Holography Camera from the Hellenic Institute of Holography
HoloKit from Liti Holographics


Editorial Reviews

"This book is a condensation at the highest level of the authors’ collective knowledge and experience in the area of display holography that includes history, theory, practice, and detailed designs of industrial systems. It includes over 500 photographs, diagrams, and design schematics for the recording and production of ultrarealistic holographic images."
—From the Foreword by Professor Tung H. Jeong, Lake Forest College

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